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Tuesday, December 9, 2014


A battery is an electrical device that is employed to convert chemical energy into voltage through electrochemical discharge reactions. These are composed of one or more cells where each cell having an anode (+), the cathode (-) and the solution. The anode and the cathode are preserved to an electric circuit. Batteries are classified into 2 varieties they are primary or disposable batteries and secondary or rechargeable batteries, whereby the primary batteries don’t seem to be reversible whereas the secondary batteries are reversible.

symbols used in #electronics.


The wireless communication technologies are rapidly spreading many new areas, including the automation and the importance of the use of wireless technologies in the data acquisition, building control, monitoring systems and automation of manufacturing processes will grow. Intelligent mobile robots and cooperative multi robotic systems can be very efficient tools to speed up search and research operations in remote areas. Robots are also useful to do jobs in areas and in situations that are hazardous for human. They can go anywhere that is not reachable by humans and can go into gaps and move through small holes that are impossible for humans and even trained dogs. 
Android platform is a new generation of smart mobile phone platform launched by Google. Android provides the support of Sensors and Bluetooth. The development of this project has the goal of controlling an android robot car. The movement of the robot car has been controlled by the application in mobile with F,B,L,R,S values and these values are send to the development board on robot car using blue-tooth.
Here we are using the Bluetooth technology to interface robotic car to mobile wirelessly.
             BLOCK DIAGRAM

Many of the wireless-controlled robots use RF modules. But this project makes use of Android mobile phone for robotic control. The control commands available are more than RF modules. For this the android mobile user has to install an application on her/his mobile. Then user needs to turn on the Bluetooth in the mobile. The wireless communication techniques used to control the robot is Bluetooth technology. User can use various commands like move forward, reverse, move left, move right using these commands which are sent from the Android mobile. Robot has a Bluetooth receiver unit which receives the commands and gives it to the microcontroller circuit to control the motors. The microcontroller then transmits the signal to the motor driver IC’s to operate the motors.
The controlling device of the whole system is a Microcontroller. Bluetooth module, DC motors are interfaced to the Microcontroller. The data received by the Bluetooth module from Android smart phone is fed as input to the controller. The controller acts accordingly on the DC motors of the Robot. The robot in the project can be made to move in all the four directions using the Android phone. The direction of the robot is indicated using LED indicators of the Robot system.
This project mainly consists of following blocks:
  • Android mobile
  • Bluetooth receiver unit
  • Microcontroller
  • DC motors
  • Power supply unit

Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system,
Middle ware and key applications. Android boasts a healthy array of connectivity options,
Including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and wireless data over a cellular connection (for example, GPRS, EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution), and 3G). Android provides access to a wide range of useful libraries and tools that can be used to build rich applications. In addition, Android includes a full set of tools that have been built from the ground up alongside the platform providing developers with high productivity and deep insight into their applications.
The movement of the robot car is been controlled by the application in mobile with Forward, Backward, Left, Right, Stop values and these values are send to the development board on robot car using blue-tooth.
Bluetooth is an open standard specification for a radio frequency (RF)-based, short-range connectivity technology that promises to change the face of computing and wireless communication. It is designed to be an inexpensive, wireless networking system for all classes of portable devices, such as laptops, PDAs (personal digital assistants), and mobile phones. It also will enable wireless connections for desktop computers, making connections between monitors, printers, keyboards, and the CPU cable-free.
This is the CPU (central processing unit) of our project. We are going to use a microcontroller of 8051 family. The features is given below:
·         Compatible with MCS-51® Products
·         8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
·         4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
·         Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
·         Three-level Program Memory Lock
·         256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
·         32 Programmable I/O Lines
·         Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
·         Eight Interrupt Sources
·         Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
·         Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
·         Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
·         Watchdog Timer
·         Dual Data Pointer
·         Power-off Flag
The hardware requirements of the project will be
·         Power Supply
·         Push Buttons
·         Transformer
·         Diodes
·         Voltage Regulator
·         Crystal
·          LEDS
·         Capacitors
·         Resistors
·         8051 series Microcontroller
·         Bluetooth module
·         Motor driver
·         DC motors
The software requirements of the project will be
§  Keil compiler
§  Languages: Embedded C or Assembly
§  DUMPING SOFT WARE: Using Micro controller flash Software we are dumping our HEX Code into Micro Controller 
§  Proteus for hardware simulation
  • Small size robot
  • Obstacles are easily avoided
  • User friendly.
  • Cost effective.
  • Easy to build.
    • The robot is small in size so can be used for spying.
    • This robot can be used in the borders for disposing hidden land mines.
    • The robot can be used for reconnaissance or surveillance.

Engine Fault Detection

The engine fault detection problem is of special interest in the automotive industry due to its direct implementation in the diagnostics of typical engine problems as well as engine preventive and predictive maintenance measures. The procedure of identifying the type and location of an engine fault can be very costly and time consuming. This paper is dedicated to the identification of more than 26 different engine faults using multi-level signal processing technique and an exhaustive search in a predefined database. This database can be easily modified and/or updated to include new types of faults; it also gives the flexibility of providing warning signals of unidentified problems whenever it detects one.
In order to maximize the lifetime and efficiency of an Engine, it is important to be aware of possible faults that may occur and to know how to catch them early. Regular monitoring and maintenance can make it possible to detect new flaws before much damage has been done. These faults can all lead to the thermal degradation of the oil and paper insulation within the Engine. Fault detection in Engines can provide early warning of electrical failure and could prevent unwanted losses.
                BLOCK DIAGRAM
The “Engine fault detection” basically consists of following main blocks

Sensor are basically use to convert physical quantity in electrical form there are different sensor are evadible for various physical quantity. In our project we control 3 parameter first is Temperature, Voltage, oil level. For this four parameter we use three different sensors.

Temperature sensor are used to control temperature of Engine  There are various type of temperature sensor are available in market such as NTC Thermister, PTC thermistor, PT-100, Thermocouple Etc. out of which NTC & PTC thermistor and PT-100 give change in resistance with respective change in temp so there is need of resistance bridge circuit which is critical and lack accuracy. But thermocouple type sensor gives directly output in mile- volt with respect to change in temp. Instrumentation amplifier further modifies this temperature so it was easy and simple way to convert temperature in required electrical form, so we use thermocouple as temperature sensor in our project.

In our project we have to calculate total voltage taken by Engine. So voltage is our first block of project.

Engine oil is usually a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. Its functions are to insulate, suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a coolant. Oil is used in Engines to insulate and cool the windings. since heat reduces the efficiency of every electrical machine, oil is used in Engine for example to cool and maintain the efficiency level of the Engine.

Amplifier is required for temperature sensor

To convert current, temperature in to its equivalent binary form we use 8-bit type Analogue to digital converter. This converter convert 0 to 5 volts D.C at input can convert its corresponding binary value. This IC is very easy to interface with micro controller

Micro controller IC 89s51 is heart of our project.  We select this      micro controller IC for our project for following no. of advantages.
  • Internal 8 K bytes of electrically erasable programmable read only   memory for feeding programmed so that there is no need of external EPROM.
  • Four 8 bit input, output port p0, p1, p2, p3 out of which we use otwo port to read ADC and other port is use to connect 16x2 alphanumeric display for written current & temperature purpose. Operating voltage of 3.5 to 6v dc which is easily available by using voltage regulator IC.
  • Internal 128 byte RAM to store temporally storage of data.  In which   we can feed took up table to turn ON/OFF relay.
  • Three 8-bit time/counter are present for timing and counting purpose.
  • 4 external and 2 internal interrupt are available.

Micro controller can read the data (for the corresponding channel) available at output of ADC and convert in equivalent alphanumeric code & display on 16x2 dot matrix liquid crystal display.

In our project we use alpha numeric display instead of 7 segment led   display because on 7 segment reading and writing alphanumeric such as X,Q W,M is quit difficult, so we use directly readymade alpha numeric display available in market this Display has two column of 16 character each i.e. we can writ message up to 32 character on it .
When any one-parameter crosses its level then micro controller turn on relay and buzzer and through relay, and cutoff main 230 volt supply so that system is trapped.
The hardware requirements of the project will be
·         Power Supply
·         8051 series Microcontroller
·         Relay Driver IC
·          Relays
·         Lamp
·         Push Buttons
·         Transformer
·         Diodes
·         Voltage Regulator
·         Crystal
·          LEDS
·         Capacitors
·         Resistors
·         Sensors
·         amplifiers
The software requirements of the project will be
§  Keil compiler
§  Languages: Embedded C or Assembly
§  DUMPING SOFT WARE: Using Micro controller flash Software we are dumping our HEX Code into Micro Controller 
§  Fault easily detected
§  No manual effort.
§  Three quantities are detected; number of quantities can be increased.
§  Cost less.
§   Engine can be safe in any condition
§  In automobile engineering
§  In mechanical engineering
§  In irrigation system


ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols used to create personal area networks built from small, low-power digital radios. ZigBee is based on an IEEE 802.15 standard. Though low-powered, ZigBee devices often transmit data over longer distances by passing data through intermediate devices to reach more distant ones, creating a mesh network; i.e., a network with no centralized control or high-power transmitter/receiver able to reach all of the networked devices. The decentralized nature of such wireless ad hoc networks make them suitable for applications where a central node can't be relied upon.
ZigBee is used in applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking. ZigBee has a defined rate of 250 kbit/s, best suited for periodic or intermittent data or a single signal transmission from a sensor or input device. Applications include wireless light switches, electrical meters with in-home-displays, traffic management systems, and other consumer and industrial equipment that requires short-range wireless transfer of data at relatively low rates. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi.
ZigBee networks are secured by 128 bit symmetric encryption keys. In home automation applications, transmission distances range from 10 to 100 meters line-of-sight, depending on power output and environmental characteristics.
2394-2507MHz transceiver
DSSS transceiver
250kbps data rate, 2 MChip/s chip rate
O-QPSK with half sine pulse shaping modulation
Very low current consumption
RX (receiving frame, -50 dBm): 18.5 mA
RX (waiting for frame): 22.3 mA
TX (+5 dBm output power): 33.6 mA
TX (0 dBm output power): 25.8 mA
Three flexible power modes for reduced power consumption
Low power fully static CMOS design
Very good sensitivity (-98dBm)
High adjacent channel rejection (49 dB)
High alternate channel rejection (54 dB)
On chip VCO, LNA, PA and filters.
Low supply voltage (1.8 - 3.8 V)
Programmable output power up to +5 dBm
I/Q direct conversion transceiver

Sunday, December 7, 2014

Smartphone battery recharges in 30 seconds

An Israeli company has developed a battery technology that can charge a mobile phone in just 30 seconds and could charge an electric car in minutes.

Created by researchers from Tel-Aviv based technology firm StoreDot, the battery can store a much higher charge more quickly, in effect acting like a sponge to soak up power and retain it.

The innovation is based around the creation of 'nanodots' – artificial peptide molecules about 2.1nm in diameter that the company synthesises and releases into the battery to rapidly increase its absorption and retention of power.

While the current prototype is far too bulky for a mobile phone, the company believes that by 2016 it will be ready to market a slim battery that can absorb and deliver a day's power for a smartphone in just 30 seconds.

It could also be used, it says, to charge a car battery in just two to three minutes.

So far, the company has raised $48million from two rounds of funding in order to make the technology a reality.

Android 5.0, Lollipop

A sweet new take on Android

The smarts of Android on screens big and small

On more than your phone and tablet

Android powers your watch, your TV and even your car.

Pick up where you left off

The songs, photos, apps, and even recent searches from one of your Android devices can be immediately enjoyed across all of your Android devices.

Material design: fluid, purposeful motion

More tangible interaction

Content responds to your touch in an intuitive way.

The right information at the right moment

With Lollipop, your tablet shows your inbox alongside the message you have open, while your watch shows new emails as they arrive.

More time playing, less time charging

More ways to secure your device


This project can be used a Digital clock. Also it has a facility to set alarm. Liquid Crystal Display - LCD shows the clock. It shows date and time. You can set the time using a 4 keys keypad. Microcontroller has an internal clock which runs inside the controller. Buzzer is turned on at the desired time periods.
Electronic clocks have predominately replaced the mechanical clocks. They are much reliable, accurate, maintenance free and portable. In general, there are two kinds of electronic clocks. They are analog clock and digital clock. But digital clocks are more common and independent of external source. It would be needed the controlled devices and implementation of software for microcontroller control system because the hardware devices cannot do any desired task to execute. In this paper, the microcontroller-based digital clock is constructed with ATMEL 8051 and its software program is written with Assembly program language. Various types of digital clocks and modules are available in the market nowadays but this clock is different at least in the accurate time. To be controlling in microcontroller is only the feature of the clock. The display will come on LCD and give the specified time.
This is an improved version of digital clock with LCD display. It has an extra feature to set the alarm in the starting. On reset, the LCD prompts the user to set alarm.  Only the hour and minute components can be set by pressing the corresponding switches, repeatedly. These switches are made active low and so they provide ground to the corresponding input pins of the microcontroller AT89C51.
When the clock time becomes equal to the alarm time, a message ‘Alarm’ is displayed on LCD and alarm pin of microcontroller goes high for some duration. This pin can be connected to a buzzer to sound the alarm at the pre-set time.
Fig. 1 Block Diagram of Microcontroller Based Digital Clock with Alarm

The hardware requirements of the project will be
·         Power Supply
·         8051 series Microcontroller
·         Relay Driver IC
·          Relays
·         Lamp
·         Push Buttons
·         Transformer
·         Diodes
·         Voltage Regulator
·         Crystal
·          LEDS
·         Capacitors
·         Resistors
·         MAX232
·         Relay
·         Buzzer

The software requirements of the project will be
§  Keil compiler
§  Languages: Embedded C or Assembly
§  DUMPING SOFT WARE: Using Micro controller flash Software we are dumping our HEX Code into Micro Controller 

  • User friendly
  • Cost effective
  • Used in institutes
  • In colleges
  •  In universities
  • In industries
  • In public garden